Cool. History lesson. Great. Learning something. The web and apps because this is something that I feel is often overlooked and something that people don't really know about. That's very interesting to me because often you hear people saying, oh, you build an app using web technology, but that's not native. That's not a real app. That's not proper. And I dug a bit deeper and the web and apps are very much intertwined.
So starting out in 1945, the academic work that led up to computers that are used by what was then called knowledge workers, what we would now call just regular people using computers, Vannevar Bush, I don't really know if I'm pronouncing that correctly, but he came up with a system called Memex, which was meant to augment the sort of human mind using computers. And this was very much sort of theoretical. And then later on, just because in the 40s, the computer technology really, really wasn't advanced enough to sort of put his ideas into practice.
But in the 1960s, Douglas Engelbart, you may have heard the name, also one of the pioneers of computing technology. He worked on the online system, which was very much inspired by what Vannevar Bush proposed, and something that would then and that's sort of the interesting part, which would then later go on to influence a lot of the hypertext. They were also talking about, you know, links and interlinking documents, and things like that. And out of this sort of research in the 1960s, a lot of the people that worked on that project with Douglas Engelbart, then went on to go work at Xerox PARC, where they were working on one of the first personal computers with a GUI operating system.
And again, a lot of the inspiration in the back of their minds came from this knowledge worker interlinked documents, argumenting the human mind. And this, you know, to give you sort of a bit of perspective, this was very early in time, you know, you can see here, 1970s to 1980s. A lot of this was then still stuck, you know, in research and in academic circles, but then, you know, 1985, rolled around Windows 1.0 was released. So you know, widespread if you will in the world of computers adoption of graphical operating systems.
And then in 1987, this is sort of a often talked about very important concept or very important product, not, you know, not used much, but as an influence, the Apple Hypercard was one of the earliest, that I know about that I could find earliest systems where users could sort of program their own computer in a graphical way. And sort of have this very easy to use programmable interface to their computers, using cards and stacks of cards, very sort of a very physical metaphor, but again, very much influenced the work, you know, the theoretical work on hypertext and on, you know, augmenting the human mind. But not in any way related to anything that we would consider the web.
So this was like purely like building sort of small apps on your computer. So, you know, the original low-code, no-code app, if you will. And then in 1989, this is where we started to pick up web steam now, finally. Tim Berners-Lee invents the World Wide Web. And, again, not the same group of people, but again influenced by, you know, hypertext and interlinked documents and this whole notion of taking a computer to augment the human mind. And now we're sort of progressing into web page territory, right? Up until this point, everything was apps and what you would consider native. And now we suddenly have websites. Of course, you know, very basic at first. And then 1993, Mosaic released. And with that sort of progression started what, well, actually, you know, all of the modern browsers we have to this, to this day.
This just, you know, very brief excerpt because you know, I don't want to bore you. Just goes to show that right from the beginning of the web and apps, this has been very much interlinked. So the notion of hypertext and hyperlinks and interlinked documents has been with computers, not just with the web, but with computers from the very beginning. Very much all of the UI and GUI operating systems and GUI concepts that have come out of the computer science in that very early time, they're very much inspired by hypertext, which is crazy if you think about it, because the World Wide Web as a concept, the web that we work in to this day, came much later than that.
I feel like this arc has a very nice arc to it, because if we sort of jump ahead to the modern day now, the announcement, recent history by Apple that the iPhone would not be running native apps, it would be running web apps. Crazy if you think about it, but just goes to show that the line, and if you are on Twitter or Reddit or Hacker News, the line that people like to draw on the sand, that says, this app is native and this app is not native, that line is very blurry. If it exists at all.
And this line just gets even blurry as time goes on because you may have not heard about the name, but Google in 2019 announced what they called Project Fugu, which is just sort of a tracking effort for a lot of the web APIs that we have recently got. Things like web media or interfacing with USB devices, things like that. All of these APIs that really blur the line again between what a website can do and what an app can do, the project really started to sort of blur the line again. If we had in the early 2000s, if we had sort of a very clear separation between what websites are and what native apps are, then now, again, just as in the early days, this line is very much blurring right now.
So there are a lot of technologies to do this, right? And one question that we always get is so many options, right? What do I do? How do I choose one? And I have a few. I have a few select choices. There are many, many more choices out there. And what I always tell people and what we always tell people is, there are a couple of categories that you should look out for. And most of these should, if you are a web developer, sound familiar, right? Because at the end of the day, a lot of the categories you choose the web front-end framework by are very similar to what you would choose a desktop app framework by. For example, the first category I always tell people is core features, right? Like what are the features of the framework? What sort of what is supported? And then that, for example, includes like, Hey, I'm very experienced in this front-end framework or my team uses React, my team uses Svelte.