Do You Really Have to Become a Manager to Advance in Your Career?

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You start as a junior developer, happily delivering lines of code. Life is easy, you love your job, you are learning a lot. And then someone approaches you saying: "We need a tech leader for a new team, and you are the most experienced person available". You either become miserable or find your new calling, but your job is not really what it was before. And then someone approaches you saying: "We are looking for a new engineering manager, and you are the most experienced person available".

Is that really the most optimal career path? What could we do differently? Let's have a look at your talents and the talents needed for the job.

There are many different jobs in tech: writing code, leading teams, managing people and projects, helping others use your technology, teaching, research, debugging.




20 min
09 Mar, 2023

AI Generated Video Summary

The Talk discusses the misconception that software career is a linear progression and shares a story of a software engineer turned engineering manager who wasn't happy. It explores the complexity of describing personality types in software engineering and the importance of considering talents, job meaning, and skill development when making career decisions. The Talk also emphasizes the significance of finding meaning in one's job, job crafting, and exploring different career paths. It concludes with the idea of challenging assumptions, assessing talents, and introspection for effective job crafting.

1. Introduction to Software Career

Short description:

I will be talking about the misconception that software career is a linear progression where we become managers after being software engineers. I'll share a story of a talented software engineer who became an engineering manager but wasn't happy and eventually left the company.

Hi. My name is Marek Kalnick, and I will be talking about carrier. I wanted to start with start with a story, a story about a very talented software engineer. She was great at her job, she was a great people person, and she was a great tech lead. So when our company needed a new engineering manager for me, she was a natural candidate to do this job, and I was quite sure that she'll succeed. Well, it turns out that six months into the role, she asked us to step down because she wasn't feeling it, and she wasn't happy with the fact that she was not coding anymore. And, at the end, she left the company a few months later because of all the negative emotions that have accumulated around this role, and this is something that is contrary to what is commonly believed that software, that software carrier is something linear, that we just move forward, we climb the ladder and one, sometimes, someday, we become a manager if we are good at what we do. and this kind of carrier is what we call a single track path.

2. Career Progression and False Assumptions

Short description:

We start as software engineers and can progress to become managers or even CTOs. Some people react to this by creating a dual track, where they can choose to stay as individual contributors and take on more challenging tasks. However, the reality is more complex. There are false assumptions that being a software developer requires a specific personality type and that career advancement is solely about moving forward.

So we start as software engineers, then we start becoming managers, we start with one team and then maybe a team of teams and then we can become a CTO, have an executive role. Some people try to react to that, react to that because obviously it doesn't work all the time. So some people try to react to that by creating what we call a dual track. What is a dual track? Dual track is basically a moment in your career when you need to decide whether you want to go to the managing role as described or you want to stay, keep being an individual contributor and maybe take some harder tasks and maybe work on some bigger projects in our role that maybe call principal staff engineer or something like this. Well, the reality is a bit more complex. So, what do we have, this difference in models, like complex reality and then the progression model that is boiled down to basically two tracks? I think that the root of it all are false assumptions. The first one is that being a software developer means a certain kind of personality. And the second one is our misconception about what does it mean to advance in a career, which creates an idea that we have a common progression path and there is a best step in this path which is just to move forward. So let's take a look at the first one.

3. Personality Types and Software Engineering

Short description:

Mayorbrick's classification divides people into different categories based on four axes: outward or inward focus, preference for experiencing or theorizing, decision-making based on logic or feelings, and preference for showing opinions or experiences. This creates 16 personality types, but there's no specific type for developers. MBTI does not define a software engineering personality.

One of the most common way to divide people into different categories according to the personality is the Mayorbrick's classification. So basically we evaluate people on four axes which are whether people are focused outwards or inwards, whether they are more about other people's or their own internal life. The second one is how do people prefer to take information, whether they need to experience things, touch things, do things or they prefer theories, theories, ideas and how do people make decisions, whether they think about things, whether they prefer logic or they try to take into account their feelings or other people's feelings. And the last category is how do you prefer to live your life. So what do you show? Do you show your opinions or do you show your experiences? This creates a matrix of 16 personality types which have some cool names like guardians or craftsmen but there's no one type for developers. I have seen this classification many times and we actually do it a lot in our company, we try to evaluate people and developers are in every category. So there's no software engineering personality according to MBTI.

4. Complexity of Describing Personality

Short description:

Describing personality is complex, with different classifications and methods like Gallup's talent classification and the TMA method. The number of combinations is much larger than the world's population, making it difficult to define a single software engineer personality.

If we take a look at other classifications like this is Gallup's talent classification, we find that describing personality is really complex. So Gallup divides talents in four categories. Category strategic thinking, relationship building, influencing and executing. And to describe one's personality, at least one's talents, they try to class them from the biggest one, from the most important ones for a person, from where she is the most talented to those where a person is least talented. This creates some kind of ladder, and if you take a look at the ladder, there's a lot of different combinations, and the number of combinations is way bigger than world's population.

Another common way of evaluating personalities is TMA method. The TMA method takes 22 motivations and talents and scores you from one to nine on each talent which gives you yet again a plethora of combinations. So it's difficult to suppose that, given that we have 27 million software engineers on earth and there's plenty of ways to describe personalities, it's difficult to think that there's one software engineer personality.

5. Advancing in a Career and Making Decisions

Short description:

Advancing in a career is not as easy as it seems. The Dunning-Kruger effect shows that after reaching a peak of confidence, we may lose it and doubt our skills. Advancing can be messy, but it's important to consider our talents, job meaning, and skill development when making career decisions.

If we take a look at the definition of the word to advance, it means that to move forward. It means to develop or improve something. And many sources focus on titles and responsibilities and on salary. But what actually is the most important and psychological studies have shown it many times is job satisfaction. And we can basically have three different kinds of job satisfaction of relation to a job.

First one is that we are just doing some stuff. And the second one is that we are trying to think about the job itself. It may be a step for something else. And the third one is the job that is actually calling. And a calling is when we are the most satisfied. But it doesn't always mean that some jobs are menial and other jobs are callings. Actually, many people may have may do the same job and perceive it differently. So if we take a look at someone who is building houses, you may have a person that is just thinking of herself as someone who is laying bricks. But you may also have someone who is thinking that they are building places for people to be happy. And they are thinking about the end impact of our job as creating happiness.

By advancing, we could by looking at advancing, we could also think about improving our skills. So, this may look like something easy. We start as a beginner, we become an expert, and obviously expert has advanced in a career. But, if we take into account what is called the Dunning-Kruger effect, we should consider that we are really not the best people to evaluate our skills. What Dunning-Kruger effect describes is basically that when you have advanced some in your skills, you find yourself at what we call the peak of stupidity. You think that you are good, but you don't really have the idea of what the job really is about. And when you are actually moving forward after this peak of stupidity, you are losing confidence in your skills and you may think that you don't know nothing, yet this is a part of the progress. So advancing is not as easy as some people think. Advancing is messy, because it may mean just moving forward and feeling worse or it may mean staying in the same place. Yet feeling better.

So if we have those two false assumptions, we can think about what should be our framework for thinking about our next step. So our next step in a career should take into account three decisions and three considerations. Does the next step fit my talents or not? Is this job meaningful for me? Is it a calling? And will I be using my old skills? Or will I be learning a lot? So if you're presented with a choice of becoming an individual contributor of Sting, an individual contributor or being a manager, becoming a manager, you should ask yourself a question. Those questions. Does being a manager fit well with your talents? Is this meaningful for you? And will you be learning new things? And actually, we should ask ourselves the same questions if we will be staying in a current track.

6. Considering Talents and Roles

Short description:

Does being a manager fit well with your talents? Is this meaningful for you? And will you be learning new things? Do you want to stay an individual contributor? Does being a staff engineer principle fit your talents better? Do you find this role meaningful, and what can you learn in this role? To give you an example, a developer at our company used the Gallop Test to evaluate himself and found that his talents were in the strategic region. He used those talents to evaluate different roles in our company and found two jobs that were fitting him well: being a part of a level-up team and animating a Kayzen office.

Does being a manager fit well with your talents? Is this meaningful for you? And will you be learning new things? And actually, we should ask ourselves the same questions if we will be staying in a current track. Do you want to stay an individual contributor? Does being a staff engineer principle fit your talents better? Do you find this role meaningful, and what can you learn in this role?

To give you an example, a developer at our company, we have a developer at our company that actually used the Gallop Test to evaluate himself. And he found out that many of his talents were in the strategic region, like being a learner, having a strategic thinking and thinking about future. And he was also great at creating connections between ideas. And he used those talents to evaluate different roles we were speaking about in our company. Some that were new ones, some that were existing ones and he was trying to find what role would fit him the best. So obviously, I think this graph, he won't be a solution architect and he won't be becoming a head of knowledge or creating a tech manager. He also found there are two jobs that were really fitting him well, being a part of what we call a level-up team, so basically enabling teams for other teams or animating a Kayzen office at our company, which is about creating continuous improvement opportunities for other developers. So, that's one consideration, that's one consideration of talents.

7. Finding Meaning and Developing Skills

Short description:

Finding meaning in your job may require a change, whether it's moving to a more impactful company or making meaningful modifications within your current role. Job crafting involves speaking with different teams, modifying tasks, and changing your perspective. By finding positive impacts and focusing on developing your skills, you can enhance job satisfaction and explore new opportunities.

The other one is finding meaning, and finding meaning may just mean changing a job. You work with a company that does not have a coin, that does not have a positive impact, and you want to move to something impactful. You want to move to half tech, you want to move to green IT.

But there's another way of addressing this problem. Job crafting is an idea that has been created in early 2000s, and it means changing your job from inside by doing some small, but meaningful modifications. You may start speaking with people that you are not really supposed to speak with. You're a product engineer and you start speaking with QAs, you're starting to have some contacts with legal teams to better understand the context. It starts changing your job. You may do task crafting which is modifying slightly your tasks. There may be some tasks that you do not enjoy that much, but a colleague may enjoy them. So you split tasks differently and you start doing other tasks.

And there's something that's really interesting which is cognitive crafting. So cognitive crafting is changing the way you are thinking about your own job. One of the researchers that coined the idea interviewed cleaning agents in a hospital. So some cleaning agents in the hospital were really unhappy about their job. It's cleaning after all, it's hard work, not paying that much and nobody sees your results. But there were also people that were seeing themselves equally important as doctors. One person described her job as a healing person, a healer, because she was making sure that the environment would be sterile for patients so they can heal better. She was still doing the same job but she was finding a lot more meaning and satisfaction. So you can also look for positive impacts of what you're doing today to have a better job satisfaction and a better perception of your current job.

And then obviously the last one is your skills. So we have different ways to describe people skills. There are dash people who have very broad but shallow skills. There are I people who have very deep skills, T-shaped people, V-shaped people, things like this. It doesn't matter which shape you have as long as it's probably bigger. So just follow what's interesting for you and try to work on it. When you will be looking for opportunities, you might start a new company. That's actually something that happened to me. I started my company few years ago before I became CTO with a discussion with my boss, telling him I need to be able to take more risks, I need to have more responsibilities, I need more independence. And the discussion that followed helped me become a CTO and create my own company in a startup studio they wanted to create.

8. Exploring Career Paths and Wishing the Best

Short description:

An open discussion with your boss or exploring job offers on the market can be a good first step in your career progression. Drawing inspiration from people on Twitter, GitHub, and conferences can help you imagine yourself in different roles. Whatever path you choose, I wish you the best of luck on your never-ending journey.

So an open discussion with your boss, if you have the possibility, maybe the best first step. If you don't, there's plenty, plenty, plenty of job offers on the market. Here's a word cloud of some job offers that I've looked up in 3 minutes and there are all different. And you can start by just exploring them and asking yourself, What is this job? Really? What does this person do? What is their task? What is their impact? And then the last source of inspiration is to look at people around you. There's plenty of interesting people on Twitter, on GitHub, on conferences like this one. So just look at their job desk and try to imagine yourself doing the same thing. Whatever you choose, however you advance. I wish you the best of luck because that's a journey that never ends. And that's a journey that will surely bring you somewhere. And I hope it will be the best days possible.

9. Challenging Assumptions and Job Crafting

Short description:

I loved how much you focused on challenging assumptions. The poll question had a split response, with 38% single track, 38% dual track, and 25% something more flexible. This aligns with the idea of striving for more flexibility in career progression. Job crafting is a valuable concept, allowing individuals to adapt their job to better suit their needs. Even in top management positions, resistance can be encountered in companies.

Yes, thank you so much for being here. And thank you for that really interesting talk. I loved how much you focused on challenging assumptions. I think that's something that I know I've always had assumptions about career progression. And I think it was super interesting to dive into those.

I would like to start with the answer to the poll question. So you had a poll question for people. And it looks like we have a pretty split response, which is interesting. So 38% and 38% single and dual track, and then 25% with something more flexible. Does that surprise you? Unfortunately, it doesn't. I think the claim on the quarter is something more flexible. I think this is, this is really the idea I was trying to address in my talk, that single track, dual tracks are all like the easy answers. And we see that most companies settle with the easy answer. And we should be striving for something more flexible. So yeah, I'd say, unfortunately, it doesn't. But maybe 25% is actually pretty good. Yeah. And maybe after more people, you know, see the, see this talk and maybe take it back to their, to their teams, maybe we'll see that change if we were to ask the question again in a little bit.

So, so I think, yeah, I talked about kind of flexibility, right, and being one of the important factors there. So we do have some questions, you know, coming And one of the questions is, what do you do if your current company isn't flexible enough about job descriptions? The easy answer is you look for another company. But that's not always ideal. I think the, I really liked the idea of job crafting. So this is an idea I have discovered in in a book called greed by Angela Duckworth. And the idea I like about job crafting is that it it really happens whether companies want it or not. So people always adapt their job. But this is something that it's not done really in an unconscious matter manner. So I think to change your job to make it fit as well as you can with something really suits you. And you know, I obviously I'm speaking from a position of a CTO and co founders. So I have been job crafting my, my job for a few years. But even when you're in a in a top management position, you actually find some resistance in companies.

10. Assessing Talents and Job Crafting

Short description:

Job crafting requires work and introspection to find a good fit for your skills. If you don't have access to professional personality tests, you can ask colleagues for feedback on what you do well. Another helpful framework is the 'start, keep, stop' questions, which provide insight into your talents and areas for improvement. Introspection empowers you to articulate your abilities and career goals effectively.

So it's not easier for other, other people. It's always a bit hard and, but you can do it. So, yeah, I think. Yeah, I like that idea of job crafting, right? And the thing of building out something that makes sense for you, and you know, you're kind of holding to the company and whether or not they're going to be flexible. But it also does require some work and introspection to know, you know what that how to actually craft that job and what would be a good fit for you and what your skill sets are.

I think a lot of times people don't necessarily know what it is that they want to do next, or they may not know until they try it. And so when you're talking about that kind of space of trying to assess your own talents and walk through that, you mentioned, you know, personality tests, but where are some of the ways to assess your own talents and interests and what might be good for you if you don't have access to things like professional personality tests? Yeah, those can be pretty expensive also. If you really want to get them done professionally, I think the easiest way to do it is to ask your colleagues, people you trust. And the easiest question is, could you tell me what I do well? Because people are finding it easier to give praise than negative feedback. And when you listen to the answer, you can understand what you do well, but you can also look for things that people didn't mention. And those are probably your weak spots, especially if you have those in your area of responsibility.

Another framework I really liked, and I have used it myself, is three questions, start, keep, stop. So what do you think I should start doing to make us work better together? What do you think I should keep doing because they are working well? And what are the things I should stop doing because they are not contributing to our, to our collaboration? And once again, this gives a lot of insight into your talents and where can you move from that?

Yeah, that's that's great. I've heard that framework before, but I hadn't heard it applied to to, you know, looking at your own abilities and your own talent. So that's it's really great advice. And I think once you do that introspection, it becomes a super power to not only craft the type of job that you would want, but to also be able to articulate why you want that type of work. And that really comes through when you do things like interviews or networking, when you can say very succinctly, like, this is what I'm good at. And this is why and this is what I want to do. Do you have something for me? Can be very, very effective. So thank you again so much for being here, Mark. And thank you for sticking with us. There's technical difficulties, but delivering a really compelling and talk on a very difficult and unique question. So thank you so much.

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Second, don't be afraid to ask questions. If you try your best to solve a problem or answer a question you have, but you can't figure it out after a reasonable amount of time, ask a team member or mentor for help.
And lastly, invest in the right resources for learning. When I started my journey, I didn't know which platforms worked for me to learn. Now, I have a few trusted platforms such as Frontend Masters, Free Code Camp, or Level Up Tutorials that I go to when I need to learn a new skill.
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Do you have some rituals or tools that keep you focused and goal-oriented?
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Second, it's just as important to decide what you are not going to learn as it is to decide what you are going to learn. You could jump into countless things — and there are successful people who are polyglot programmers, but I can't speak to that a whole lot. All I can tell you is that in my experience, focusing on specific things that I want to be truly good at has worked out great for my career. That doesn't mean that I closed myself off to other things. With my website rewrite, I have been doing a lot of dev ops-related work and a lot of back-end stuff that I've typically not been involved in. You want to keep your head up on what's going on outside of what you're doing so that you know what direction to go in when you come across problems you need to solve. However, finding a focus on what you want to be good at has helped me a lot. That way, you feel a little less stressed.
And the third one? 
Learn how to learn effectively. It's a three-step process: you consume, build, and teach. The consumption of newsletters and Twitter and whatever inspires you, but you don't want to spend too much time doing that — implementing it into actually building something matters. This happens naturally if you work at a company, but maybe you're not making the things you want to learn, so you may want to start a side project. The building phase is where you get experience, but you also want to solidify that experience. How? You start teaching. You don't necessarily have to teach it to people, it could be stuffed animals. The goal of the teaching is to retain in your mind what you've learned through the building process.
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React version 18 is coming out soon. The experimental version is out there, and it's fun to play with. I'm just really thrilled that it's no longer a concurrent mode but concurrent features that you can opt into. Cool things like that will enable React server components in the future. 
But the biggest thing I'm excited about is Remix. That's huge. It eliminates a lot of problems that are solved well other tools, but when I'm using Remix, I don't have those problems, so I don't need those clusters.
You already said that teaching is an integral part of the learning process, and you stand your word since you're also a full-time educator. What inspired you to enter this field?
I have been a teacher for as long as I can remember. I grew up in a church where you talk in front of your peers from a very young age, and my mom was an elementary school teacher, so teaching has just always been a part of me. 
I really just enjoy sharing what I'm learning with others. As far as teaching technical topics, I gave my first workshop when I was still a student at Brigham Young University. With my fellow, we taught how to use AngularJS, and I got Firebase to sponsor pizza so they would show up, and that was pretty fun.
Then I started teaching on the side at egghead.io right after I'd graduated. That was when I first got a paycheck for teaching. And I realized that teaching could be quite lucrative and support my family and me as a full-time endeavor. So I did it — I quit my job. I'm a very risk-averse person, so I'd done teaching as a side hustle for four years just to verify that I could make this work.
When TestingJavaScript was released, and I got that paycheck, I realized that I didn't need my PayPal salary anymore. I could just focus my daytime on teaching and give my evenings back to my family, which was a nice trait.


Apart from that, how has teaching impacted your career? 
Earlier I mentioned that pretty much all of my jobs came because I was perceived as an expert. After the first job, where I was an intern and then converted into full-time, I never applied to another. I worked for four different companies, and they wouldn't have recruited me if they didn't know who I was and what I was doing. My content is how they knew who I was — I just made it easy for them to find me. Teaching made that impact. It made my career. 
We talked about React and Remix. Are there any other open-source projects that you'd recommend keeping an eye on or contributing to?
I have some myself. React Testing Library is probably the biggest one that people are familiar with. And if React isn't your jam, then other framework versions of the testing library. 
React Query is also really popular. If you're using Remix, you don't need it, but if you're not, I strongly advise using React Query cause it's a stellar, fantastic library, and Tanner Linsley, the creator, is a stellar and fantastic person. 
What pieces of your work are you most proud of? 
Probably the biggest thing I've ever done is EpicReact.Dev. It has helped tens of thousands of people get really good at React, improve their careers and make the world a better place with the skills that they develop. My whole mission is to make the world a better place through quality software, and I feel like I've done that best with Epic React. 
There are things that I've built at other companies that are still in use, and I'm proud of those cause they've stood the test of time, at least these last few years. But of everything, I think Epic React has made the biggest impact.
***
Follow Kent on Twitter and listen to his favorite Spotify playlist
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